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History of development of the enterprise

At the certain stage of development of the person there was a division of labour and there was a specialization of manufacture. People began to make products not only for the consumption, but also for their exchange for products of work of other people. Occurrence of the enterprise is economically caused by transition of a society to a division of labour. It has been caused by rapid development of the industry during becoming capitalist relations. The enterprise has the sources in a matrimony.

The family at early steps of development of culture represented not only the organized cell of the state, but also the most ancient form of the organization of a facilities at which the family systematically made any subjects for the market. Thus, the most ancient enterprise made a part of housekeeping and entirely submitted to a family mode. In Russia the subject of private law was the family which possessed the right to property. In IX - XII centuries the main productive force of Russian state were peasants. Separate facilities formed communities and adjusted economic, legal, social and spiritual spheres of a life and activity of the members on the basis of traditions.

Each country family conducted the facilities separately, using own instruments of work, draft animals. The peasant used the ground, but the community which distributed the ground disposed of her and defined conditions of land tenure. The right of the peasant to the ground was carried out through collective possession. Thus only the processable ground was in using country family. The property of family has not been isolated, therefore under obligations of one of its members the responsibility was born by all family. The responsibility followed from the character of a matrimony and was not in a direct communication with the right of succession. Children of a male could inherit only.

In XI century alongside with princely a seignioral ancestral lands have started to be formed. It happenedseveral ways: prince could give the combatants of territory for the certain period of time for gathering a tribute - "proforages", in due course these grounds became hereditary possession of boyars; or it awarded combatants for service with the state ground; and as prince could give the confidants a part of own possession. The craft has arisen in patriarchal families as a house craft for service of and the relatives in the elementary products of use: linen fabrics, a leather, utensils, footwear, etc. These products were not beyond family and did not go on sale.

During the further public division of labour house crafts were allocated in separate branch of a national economy - craft manufacture. Handicraftsmen served needs not only patriarchal family, but also made the goods for an exchange. All of them were engaged in agriculture less and, losing touch with an agriculture, got over in city settlements. Development of commodity-money attitudes has most essentially affected the law of succession regarding landed property. The Earth and other real estate have been allocated from the general hereditary weight in independent object of inheritance with an establishment for it the special order of inheritance. The real estate became the main object of inheritance.

In the further in history there was a period when business was forbidden, and socially significant property could not be in the property of citizens. Therefore in the legislation on inheritance there were no regulations about transition of the enterprise by right of succession. " In a socialist society the essence of inheritance is defined by that means of production are socialized, and by right of succession can pass is only right a personal property to consumer goods ". The enterprise as object of a private property has been completely excluded from the Soviet legislation. But these times for a long time have passed, the enterprise as a private property costs on the first place and top of development of the enterprise is the corporation.

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