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The International corporations

Occurrence of the international corporations is natural result of development of economic and the international economic attitudes, on the one hand, and the powerful factor of their development, with another. Process of internationalization of manufacture as main precondition of creation of the international corporations in the basis has model of consecutive internationalization. Focused on expansion of selling abroad given model reflects consecutive addition historically and logically the first form of internationalization of commodity export by new forms of the international enterprise activity by export of licenses, the trade mark, direct foreign investments.

In a world practice the international corporation is considered as the form of the structural organization of the large corporation which is carrying out direct investments into the various countries of the world. Result of direct foreign investment of the international corporation can be creation of the foreign enterprise in which the direct investor-non-resident owns less than 50 %, the capital; an affiliated firm where its share exceeds 50 % and foreign branch of the enterprise completely belonging the direct investor. Two forms of the international corporations distinguish. Transnational corporations it is corporations which head company belongs to the capital of one country, and branches are scattered worldwide and multinational corporations it is corporations which head company belongs to the capital of two and more countries, and foreign branches also are in the different countries.

The transnational and multinational companies can be considered as the form of existence of the international corporations, and division of the last into two forms of display is conditional enough, as their main qualitative attribute is not that, the capital of some countries has created the head company, and international character of activity of the companies. In a world practice as the international corporations understand only really large companies rendering essential influence on the world market of the goods and factors of manufacture. As a rule, those multinational and transnational corporations concern to them, at which only: the annual sales volume makes not less than 1 billion dollars; from 1/5 up to 1/3 general turns it is necessary on foreign operations; a share of foreign actives not less than 25 %; branches are available not less, than in six countries. The international corporations, having arisen in the end of XIX century, there have passed long enough way of evolutionary development during which priorities of their forms and fields of activity changed, intracorporate structure and strategy.

The present stage of development of the international corporations is characterized not only occurrence of global corporations, but also qualitative change of the organization of activity. Since the end of 90th years in the world 60 thousand the international corporations, foreign branches having 500 thousand and the companies worldwide functions nearby. They supervise up to half of world industrial production, 63 % of foreign trade, and also approximately 4/5 patents and licenses for new technics, technology and a know-how. Under the control of the transnational companies there are 90 % of the world market of wheat, coffee, corn, forest products, tobacco, jute and iron ore; 85 % of the market of copper and bauxites, 80 % of tea and tin, 75 % of bananas, natural rubber and crude oil. Half of American export is carried out by the American and foreign multinational corporations. In the Great Britain this share has reached 80 %, in Singapore - 90 %. The Most part of the payments connected with a transfer of new technologies, is carried out inside of the multinational corporation. In the USA the share of the multinational corporation in transfers of technologies makes 80 %, in the Great Britain - 90%.

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