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12/12/2018
 

Competitiveness of trading corporation

In our country the certain experience of business dealing and management of processes of functioning of the organizations in market conditions has collected. At the first stage of formation of market attitudes recommendations of leading experts of economically developed countries are actively used. However expediency of application of development of mainly domestic authors reflecting complex features of the validity and specificity of external and internal conditions of business dealing by businessmen. The most practical theories and techniques are the materials developed directly in the environment of their application. One of the most significant modern lines in enterprise sphere of economically developed countries which all is more actively shown and in economy of our country, is formation of corporate types of the enterprises.

Process of creation of corporations has begun with financial and industrial spheres and then has extended on sphere of the reference. It is necessary to notice, that, despite of significant backlog of the Russian economy from economy of such developed postindustrial countries as, for example, Japan and the USA, in our country process of formation of corporations in sphere of trade and services has begun with backlog only in some years. Formation of corporate structures occurs on a background of revolutionary rates of introduction in business-processes of information technologies and expansions of their use in all aspects of activity of the person. The information became a resource level with materials, energy and the capital. Moreover, there was a new economic category-national information resources, and the exhaustion of natural resources has led to significant activization of use of the reproduced resources based on application of scientific knowledge, first of all information. One of the major results of economic reforms is formation not public sector and transition in it of the big number of the economic units, was early in the property of the state. The significant number of the former state enterprises has got the status of joint-stock companies, having created, thus, corporate subsector of economy.

There are various forms of the organization of business and one of the most widespread the corporate form is. The market of large corporations, and those are the markets actually all developed countries and the world market as a whole, has huge advantages before the market of the enterprises. Because large corporations it is rather easy and on more favourable conditions receive credits, enjoying the governmental support and own authority. And as corporations have greater opportunities diversifications the activity. As in connection with a scale effect, corporations have opportunities to reduce costs, both manufactures, and selling, receiving, thus, advantages before competitors and raising economic efficiency of the activity. Corporations cover spatially wider market on which the effect of averaging of fluctuations of a conjuncture is shown that facilitates planning economic activities and promotes their steady functioning. The corporate form of business dealing represents top of a pyramid of development of organizational structures.

The elementary form of the organization of business is the individual firm - firm of the individual proprietor which the physical person owns. Some of them are small enterprises, others - large firms with the branched out network of branches, greater number borrowed and hired managers. Individual firms - the most popular form of the organization in the countries with market economy (for example, in the USA - 73 % of the general number of firms, 6 % of annual proceeds from sales). The firm which is being the property of two or more persons, represents partnership or company that allows several persons to unite the resources, and each of partners receives a share have arrived in conformity with the contribution. This form of business is in the countries with market economy of the least widespread (approximately 9 % of all firms and the order of annual proceeds of 4 % from sales). Both in individual, and in partner firms owners answer with personal property for debts. As there is no also a restriction on the sizes of this responsibility as its object are industrial and personal actives of owners of firm. As one more most widespread kind of business the corporation acts. It is the special form of the organization of the business, adjustable by the legislation, representing from the point of view of the law the separate legal person.

By means of incorporation - formations of joint-stock company owners-shareholders create the organization which can legally own property, to be the proprietor, to take loans, etc. This form of the organization of business has received a wide circulation in the countries with market economy. Owing to the special mechanism of attraction of the monetary capital of corporation it is easier to increase its volume, and also to realize advantages of association of capitals. In particular, the corporation is capable to take advantages from technologies of mass production, or, if to speak about trade, bulk sellings. The sizes of corporation allow to carry out deeper specialization in use of human resources.

During since 1998 the condition of economy was stabilized after financial crisis, and it involves all lot of foreign investors. The government undertakes the certain efforts on struggle against shadow structures, and also promotes increase of reliability of financial structures, first of all, commercial banks. Owing to it many foreign corporations prefer to invest not simply in our enterprises, but also to organize joint ventures and even to build own factories and to open large trading networks. Such tendencies allow to draw a conclusion, that in the near future the corporate form of the organization of business can become one of the most popular, and the accent will gradually move from extracting both manufacturing industries to trade and sphere of services.

 
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