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Features of activity of transnational corporations

The international corporations represent large associations of industrial, trading, transport or bank firms and the companies which activity leaves far for borders of the countries of basing and provides with it favorable positions in manufacture, selling, purchase of the goods and rendering of services. The first international associations of the enterprises have arisen in 60 80th of XIX century in sphere of extraction, purchase and selling of mineral raw material. In process of development of capitalist attitudes they are formed in various sectors of the world economy. Occurrence of the international industrial formations is natural result of development of a division of labour and industrial cooperation.

Participation of the enterprises in a division of labour conducts to their specialization which is accompanied by growth of concentration of manufacture and the capital, i.e. increase in scales of the enterprises. In conditions of market economy concentration is the factor of a survival in competitive struggle, providing decrease in production costs. Having carried out increase in manufacture within the limits of the countries, the enterprises aspire to adjust release of the goods abroad. Here also there is a problem of creation of the international production associations. The reason of occurrence of the international industrial formations is the traditional aspiration of businessmen to lower production costs and to receive superprofit. In a pursuit of high incomes they leave on the world market, are united and direct industrial, marketing, financial and social policy on use natural and a manpower in global scales, on use of all world market space.

The output of many enterprises on the world market aggravates a competition between them, that also induces businessmen to concentrate the capitals and manufacture internationally. Multinational associations of the enterprises have historically arisen before transnational corporations, but they have no so wide influence, as the multinational corporation. It is possible to explain it to that in firms of a various national identity any of the states does not borrow a leading position in manufacture that is indoubtedly observed in the national corporations placing the actives abroad. At the characteristic of modern international concerns important not so much their origin, how many a place of the appendix of the capital. Recently in western scientific and periodicals began to use the term « global corporations » which apply to the international corporations leading the business activity in scales of all world. Among transnational firms is a lot of owning in tens and even in hundreds the large factories located in many countries of the world.

Transition to diversified structure strengthens economic positions of the multinational corporation. Having learned to conduct diversified business in the country, they then make use of this experience for introduction in some branches of foreign countries that allows them to spend more successfully competitive struggle against other firms in territory of host countries. Notwithstanding what in the world market the multinational corporations which were in addition much of them function tens thousand let out homogeneous production, the tendency to monopolization nevertheless is precisely shown. It is especially appreciable in the high technology branches of manufacture demanding huge investments and highly skilled workers.

Features of the present stage of development of transnational corporations it is shown not only in an aggravation of a competition between them, but as practice testifies, and in occurrence of mutual attitudes of cooperation which have received the name of strategic alliances. Within the limits of these formations transnational corporations can solve the diversified problems rising before them in all three basic markets of the world. The tendency to creation of strategic alliances gains in strength, and is not excluded, that these formations will develop in the near future into stronger unions of transnational corporations. In this case there will be their development into multinational corporations, but already at new, higher stage of their development.

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